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The message preached this past Sunday can be heard here. In an effort to prompt more individual study and personal reflection upon the text, the following personal translation and Greek Exegetical Notes are made available for your review. Below you will find my own translation of the passage, a verse by verse parsing of the major verbs, and my own exegetical notes and comments.
You all have heard that it was spoken to those of old, “You will not murder and if anyone has murdered, he makes himself subject to judgment.” However, I, myself, am saying to you that everyone who is angered against his brother makes himself subject to judgment. And whoever says to his brother, “stupid idiotic fool,” makes himself subject to the Supreme Court, and whoever simply says, “Moron,” makes himself subject to the fire of hell. So if you have presented your gift upon the altar, and there it occurs to you that your brother holds something against you, you must leave your gift there before the altar and go quickly to first be reconciled to your brother, and then, having come, present your gift. You must quickly be making friends with your accuser while you are with him on the way lest he hand you over to the judge and the judge to the guard, and you be thrown into prison. Truly, I say to you, you will never get out until you have paid the last penny. (Matthew 5:21-26)
21 Ἠκούσατε [ὅτι] ἐρρέθη [τοῖς ἀρχαίοις]· οὐ φονεύσεις· ὃς δʼ ἂν φονεύσῃ, ἔνοχος ἔσται τῇ κρίσει.
Translation: You all have heard that it was spoken to those of old, “You will not murder and if anyone has murdered or will murder, he makes himself subject to judgment.”
Exegetical notes: This teaching is something that everyone has heard, i.e. popular or common. The aorist subjunctive indicates that the Pharisees taught that you were accountable for a murder that you committed at any point in past time. The fact that future middle is used indicates that the individual has made himself subject to the judgment by his own preceding actions. There is nothing inherently wrong with this teaching on its face, but Christ will go on to show how this teaching regarding murder is still woefully lacking.
22 ἐγὼ δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι [πᾶς] ὁ ὀργιζόμενος τῷ ἀδελφῷ αὐτοῦ ἔνοχος ἔσται τῇ κρίσει· ὃς δʼ ἂν εἴπῃ τῷ ἀδελφῷ αὐτοῦ· ῥακά, ἔνοχος ἔσται τῷ συνεδρίῳ· ὃς δʼ ἂν εἴπῃ· μωρέ, ἔνοχος ἔσται εἰς τὴν γέενναν τοῦ πυρός.
Translation: I, myself, am saying to you that everyone who is angered against his brother makes himself subject to judgment. And whoever says to his brother, “stupid fool,” makes himself subject to the Supreme Court, and whoever simply says, “moron,” makes himself subject to the fire of hell.
Exegetical Notes: “Raca” means a fool or empty-headed fellow. The Greek word used in the previous sentence means (raca) the same basic thing as the following Greek word “Moros.” Why would Jesus say the same thing twice? This is doubtful. Racca would have been a word spoken contemptuously, while moron is a word that is in common usage even today and may or may not have an inherent sense of malice. We observe a decrease in the nature of the offense that corresponds to an increase in the nature of the judgment that is to be received for the offense.
23 ἐὰν οὖν προσφέρῃς τὸ δῶρόν σου ἐπὶ τὸ θυσιαστήριον κἀκεῖ μνησθῇς ὅτι ὁ ἀδελφός σου ἔχει τι κατὰ σοῦ, 24 ἄφες ἐκεῖ τὸ δῶρόν σου ἔμπροσθεν τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου καὶ ὕπαγε πρῶτον διαλλάγηθι τῷ ἀδελφῷ σου, καὶ τότε ἐλθὼν πρόσφερε τὸ δῶρόν σου.
Translation: So if you have presented your gift upon the altar, and there it occurs to you that your brother holds something against you, you must leave your gift there before the altar and go quickly to first be reconciled to your brother, and then, having come, present your gift.
Exegetical Notes: The idea of this complex sentence is intriguing. The verb “μνησθῇς” contains an idea of passive receptivity. The force of this combination indicates that no true worshipper of God would ever dare approach the altar with known unresolved conflict in his life. But Christ’s teaching takes it to another level still: if at the altar, in some strange turn of events, God should bring to the worshipper’s memory or cause it to occur to the worshipper that there is some unresolved conflict in his life, the true worshipper will not dare to worship God with this truth lingering in his conscience. He will, out of obedience to Jesus, make every attempt to resolve the conflict and make peace prior to offering his gift of worship.
Following the passive occurrence of some memory or thought of conflict, everything Jesus says is in the imperative: you must go quickly, you must be reconciled, you must make peace, ect.
Christ also teaches that reconciliation must be exchanged between both parties willingly. It does no good to say sorry. Forgiveness must be received, which implies that forgiveness must be genuinely offered.
25 ἴσθι εὐνοῶν τῷ ἀντιδίκῳ σου ταχύ, ἕως ὅτου εἶ μετʼ αὐτοῦ ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ, μήποτέ σε παραδῷ ὁ ἀντίδικος τῷ κριτῇ καὶ ὁ κριτὴς τῷ ὑπηρέτῃ καὶ εἰς φυλακὴν βληθήσῃ· 26 ἀμὴν λέγω σοι, οὐ μὴ ἐξέλθῃς ἐκεῖθεν, ἕως ἂν ἀποδῷς τὸν ἔσχατον κοδράντην.
Translation: You must be coming to terms quickly/reach agreement with/(literally) make friends with your accuser while you are with him on the way lest he hand you over to the judge and the judge to the guard, and you be thrown into prison. Truly, I say to you, you will never get out until you have paid the last penny.
Exegetical Notes: To reach agreement in the Greek is literally “make friends.” Again, the original languages are stressing the significance of the relationship, not contractual terms. There are other Greek terms that could be employed if this were truly a business transaction, but the use of “εὐνοῶν” makes it clear that Christ’s emphasis is on the relationship.
However, it is clear from the following prose that debtor’s prison is the illustration that Christ is using. You are not released from debtor’s prison until you have paid your debt. This means that while relationship is stressed and brotherhood is stressed, it is stressed from the perspective of owing a debt to those with whom you are to have a relationship.
Christ’s teaching here is that you must make friends with your accuser while you are being dragged to the debt court judge. Given the context of impending judgment and the coming judgment, this seems to indicate that a correct perspective on relationships requires that we see ourselves as owing a literal debt of love to other people, and if we do not pay that debt of love as we are marching inescapably to the day of judgement, then God will extract every ounce of that debt from us in eternal torment.
 Barbara Aland, Kurt Aland, Matthew Black et al., The Greek New Testament, 4th ed. (Federal Republic of Germany: United Bible Societies, 1993), 10.